- May 21, 2019 at 8:06 PM #924
Thyroid hormones play an important role in health and appearance, so I have decided to collect some findings and summarize them for future reference.
What are thyroid hormones?
The focus of this article is regarding two hormones: thyroxin (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3). T3 is ultimately the most potent and active thyroid hormone and therefore usually the most relevant and important.
T4 is the main product secreted by the thyroid follicular cells and is regarded as a precursor of the bioactive hormone T3, most of which is produced by outer ring deiodination of T4 in peripheral tissues.—Visser, 1996
- trace minerals obtained via eating enough, variety in the diet, and/or occasional seafood
- riboflavin (vitamin B2)
- vitamin B6
Before thyroid hormones are made, the bare minimum requirements are the presence and availability of trace minerals—particularly iodine and selenium. T4 and T3 are partially composed of iodine, so it is worth mentioning that iodine is 100% necessary to have any relevant thyroid function at all. T4 is transformed into T3 with the aid of deiodinase enzymes which contain selenium, so selenium should also be considered necessary (Köhrle, 1999). Finally, because L-selenomethionine is a major dietary form of selenium (Schrauzer, 2000), vitamin B6 should be considered as necessary, as the Pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP) form of vitamin B6 is needed as a cofactor for enzymes that allow selenium to be used from this dietary form, and riboflavin (vitamin B2) is involved in the conversion of B6 to the PLP form (Lakshmi and Bamji, 1976).
However, this line of thinking may be misleading, as iodine deficiency and selenium deficiency are rare (but not unheard of or impossible), and iodine, selenium, and vitamin B6 are all toxic when overdosed (Köhrle, 1999; Schrauzer, 2000). Iodine and selenium are trace minerals with a widespread presence in a great variety of foods, so it is difficult to completely avoid them. Supplementation of these two minerals is rarely called for, and conservative dosing is usually the safest strategy when it is. Normally, the most practical strategies are to have variety in the diet in case the soil in which local crops are grown is deficient, to avoid overly refined or processed foods, to occasionally partake in seafood as it is a rich source of such trace minerals, or to just eat more in general, since statistically you will tend to acquire more iodine and selenium just by consuming more food.
Source: Kendall, 1916.
Diet & Thyroid Function
Better thyroid function happens when:
- eating enough
- eating a high carbohydrate diet
- eating a low-fat diet
Worse thyroid function happens when:
- restricting calories
- eating a low carbohydrate diet
- eating a high-fat diet
- eating polyunsaturated fat
As anticipated, total fasting resulted in a 53% reduction in serum T3 in association with a reciprocal 58% increase in rT3.—Spaulding, et al., 1976
In general, calorie restriction and fasting both inhibit thyroid function and reduce thyroid hormones (Spaulding, et al., 1976). Carbohydrate avoidance also inhibits thyroid function (Bisschop, et al., 2001), and conversely, a high carbohydrate diet is capable of increasing thyroid hormone production (Johannessen, et al., 1981; Welle, et al., 1984). Furthermore, a high carbohydrate diet increases thyroid hormone utilization by binding an increased proportion to proteins (Welle, et al., 1984) for transport through cell membranes (Azimova, et al., 1984 [1–2]), while a high fat diet decreases thyroid hormones (Johannessen, et al., 1981; Bandini, et al, 1994). Also, polyunsaturated fat inhibits conversion of T4 to T3 in the liver, while saturated fat does not (Chopra, et al., 1985), and polyunsaturated fat inhibits thyroid hormone binding to transport proteins, while saturated fat does not (Liewendahl and Helenius, 1976; Lim, et al., 1995), so a diet with an excess of polyunsaturated fat in particular should be expected to inhibit T3 production and thyroid hormone utilization.
dietary carbohydrate is an important regulatory factor in T3 production in man—Spaulding, et al., 1976
Toxic Halogen Avoidance
For health, avoid:
- fluorine (in practice fluoride compounds)
- bromine (in practice bromide and bromate compounds)
Iodine, fluorine, and bromine are all halogens, and fluorine and bromine can compete with iodine (Pavelka, 2004), cause iodine deficiency (Waugh, 2019), and subsequently cause hypothyroidism (Mizukami, et al., 1988; Susheela, et al., 2005).
Sources of fluorine and bromine include:
spoiler*Although potassium bromate and other bromate compounds are not the same as bromides, and a clear-cut case for bromates playing an obvious or direct role in hypothyroidism may not be established, their carcinogenicity is not helpful, and the way experiments on rats resulted in tumors in thyroid glands (and other places but chronologically, the thyroid gland first) is normally not an indicator of a substance which optimizes thyroid function. (Kurokawa, et al., 1990; Wolf, et al., 1998) However, Kurokawa, et al., 1990 states
almost all of the [potassium bromate] is converted to [potassium bromide] during the bread-baking process.
- Eat a varied diet with adequate B vitamins.
- Eat plenty of carbohydrates.
- Avoid calorie restriction/fasting.
- Avoid high fat intake—especially polyunsaturated fat.
- Avoid fluorides and bromides.
Source: Hertoghe, 1914.
- Azimova, ShS, et al. “The nature of thyroid hormone receptors. Translocation of thyroid hormones through plasma membranes.” Biokhimiia (Moscow, Russia) 49.8 (1984): 1350-1356.
- Azimova, ShS, et al. “The nature of thyroid hormone receptors. Thyroxine-and triiodothyronine-binding proteins of mitochondria.” Biokhimiia (Moscow, Russia) 49.9 (1984): 1478-1485.
- Bandini, Linda G., Dale A. Schoeller, and William H. Dietz. “Metabolic differences in response to a high‐fat vs. a high‐carbohydrate diet.” Obesity research 2.4 (1994): 348-354.
- Bisschop, P. H., et al. “Isocaloric carbohydrate deprivation induces protein catabolism despite a low T3‐syndrome in healthy men.” Clinical endocrinology 54.1 (2001): 75-80.
- Chopra, Inder J., et al. “Evidence for an inhibitor of extrathyroidal conversion of thyroxine to 3, 5, 3′-triiodothyronine in sera of patients with nonthyroidal illnesses.” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 60.4 (1985): 666-672.
- Hertoghe, Eugene. “Thyroid Deficiency.” International Clinic Week at the New York Polyclinic Medical School and Hospital during the International Surgical Congress. Apr. 1914. pp. 29-77
- Horowitz, B. Zane. “Bromism from excessive cola consumption.” Journal of Toxicology: Clinical Toxicology 35.3 (1997): 315-320.
- Johannessen, Arnn, Claus Hagen, and Henrik Galbo. “Prolactin, growth hormone, thyrotropin, 3, 5, 3′-triiodothyronine, and thyroxine responses to exercise after fat-and carbohydrate-enriched diet.” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 52.1 (1981): 56-61.
- Kendall, Edward C. “Studies of the active constituent, in crystalline form, of the thyroid.” Tr. Assn. Am. Phys 31 (1916): 134-145.
- Köhrle, Josef. “The trace element selenium and the thyroid gland.” Biochimie 81.5 (1999): 527-533.
- Kurokawa, Yuji, et al. “Toxicity and carcinogenicity of potassium bromate–a new renal carcinogen.” Environmental health perspectives 87 (1990): 309-335.
- Lakshmi, A. V., and M. S. Bamji. “Regulation of blood pyridoxal phosphate in riboflavin deficiency in man.” Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 20.4 (1976): 228-233.
- Liewendahl, K., and Tuula Helenius. “Effect of fatty acids on thyroid function tests in vitro and in vivo.” Clinica Chimica Acta 72.3 (1976): 301-313.
- Lim, Chen-Fee, et al. “Influence of nonesterified fatty acids and lysolecithins on thyroxine binding to thyroxine-binding globulin and transthyretin.” Thyroid 5.4 (1995): 319-324.
- Mizukami, Yuji, et al. “Histologic features of thyroid gland in a patient with bromide-induced hypothyroidism.” American journal of clinical pathology 89.6 (1988): 802-805.
- Pavelka, Stanislav. “Metabolism of bromide and its interference with the metabolism of iodine.” Physiological research 53 (2004): S81-90.
- Schrauzer, Gerhard N. “Selenomethionine: a review of its nutritional significance, metabolism and toxicity.” The Journal of nutrition 130.7 (2000): 1653-1656.
- Spaulding, Stephen W., et al. “Effect of caloric restriction and dietary composition on serum T3 and reverse T3 in man.” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 42.1 (1976): 197-200.
- Susheela, A. K., et al. “Excess fluoride ingestion and thyroid hormone derangements in children living in Delhi, India.” Fluoride 38.2 (2005): 98-108.
- Visser, T. J. “Pathways of thyroid hormone metabolism.” Acta Medica Austriaca 23.1-2 (1996): 10-16.
- Waugh, Declan Timothy. “Fluoride Exposure Induces Inhibition of Sodium/Iodide Symporter (NIS) Contributing to Impaired Iodine Absorption and Iodine Deficiency: Molecular Mechanisms of Inhibition and Implications for Public Health.” International journal of environmental research and public health 16.6 (2019): 1086.
- Wolf, Douglas C., et al. “Time-and dose-dependent development of potassium bromate-induced tumors in male Fischer 344 rats.” Toxicologic pathology 26.6 (1998): 724-729.
- Welle, S., et al. “Decreased free fraction of serum thyroid hormones during carbohydrate overfeeding.” Metabolism 33.9 (1984): 837-839.
May 22, 2019 at 12:01 AM #937
- Boelen, Anita. “Thyroid hormones and glucose metabolism: the story begins before birth.” Experimental physiology 94.10 (2009): 1050-1051.
- Hollander, Charles S., et al. “Free fatty acids: a possible regulator of free thyroid hormone levels in man.” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 27.8 (1967): 1219-1223.
- Ishizuki, Y., et al. “The effects on the thyroid gland of soybeans administered experimentally in healthy subjects.” Nihon Naibunpi Gakkai Zasshi 67.5 (1991): 622-629.
NibbaParticipant13 ptsMay 22, 2019 at 7:55 AM #975
Look at the last picture. It’s almost as though the man got a whole different ethnicity.
I am enlightened.
Very good post.
"You may be the best argument for abortion I've ever seen."
- Chief Randall Crawford (Paradise PD S1:E7)May 22, 2019 at 8:35 AM #978
didnt read a single wors but i know its legit and good thread so +1 will read another time
never looked into thyroid function tbhMay 22, 2019 at 12:17 PM #980
Look at the last picture. It’s almost as though the man got a whole different ethnicity. I am enlightened. Very good post.
Bro like srsly his whole ethnicity changed funny how he tremendously changed, but he looks homeless on the left picture.
https://media.giphy.com/media/jGJkFwL7dF5Hq/giphy.gifMay 26, 2019 at 10:52 AM #1139
Highest IQ most revolutionary post on this forum to date
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